Mutual accountability means that all partners involved in IHP+ hold each other to account on progress made against commitments to support the national health strategy and improve development cooperation in health. This includes commitments made by government, development partners and civil society that are set out in partnership compacts, codes of conduct and joint financing agreements. 

Mutual accountability as defined here is not the same as accountability for results in health and health systems performance. The latter looks at progress to implement plans and meet targets in the health sector strategic plan. Both types of accountability are key to building stronger health systems and achieving health results. Mutual accountability indicators and processes should be part of the overall information and accountability framework.

Mutual accountability at country level

In some countries, mutual accountability is increasing through more inclusive health policy dialogue and through joint health sector review and country compact monitoring exercises. For example, Mozambique introduced aid effectiveness indicators into their core data set for joint annual health sector reviews.

Global level monitoring as the basis for mutual accountability

The IHP+ Global Compact calls for ‘an independent assessment of results at country level and of the performance of each signatory individually as well as collectively’. This refers to results in effective development cooperation in health. IHP+ has commissioned periodic, independent monitoring exercises. The results from the 2012 monitoring exercise are here and the 2014 monitoring exercise is described here. For the 2014 exercise, the IHP+ Mutual Accountability Working Group (MAWG) reviewed and agreed the indicators for future monitoring of IHP+. These are voluntary and to be embedded in national accountability processes. A small sub-group reviewed the CSO indicator.

In March 2015, the Mutual Accountability Working Group met to review lessons from the 2014 round of monitoring, discuss how best to use the findings, and consider IHP+’s role in monitoring and mutual accountability post 2015. The summary of the meeting is here.